A brand new user has had their question closed. Sure they didn't
respond very quickly to requests asking to make the question more
specific, but it looks like there was no "voting" that took place and
the question was just closed by one moderator's unilateral decision.
I don't think this is a good way to treat brand new users.
First things first. The thread you mention was sort of an edge case. At face value, it was asking us to guide them through the whole 32-bit RSA decryption process. Such a question is indeed too broad for our site and was rightfully closed as such by Mithrandir. But, on the other hand, it was an interesting question in itself and had a decent answer from you (although I can't say for sure whether it actually addressed what the OP was looking for). So while I agree with the closure, I wouldn't quite agree with the permanent deletion of the question (the deletion was done by the system because neither the question nor the answer had a positive score over an extended period of time). I have edited it a bit and voted to undelete the question. It will require one more undelete vote (3 in total).
I think we should wait until the question has the minimum 5 close
votes. If the question really should be closed, why should the voting
process be circumvented?
This part of the question is a duplicate of a similar question I had asked a few months ago: How active should moderators be in closing questions? I personally do partly agree that moderators should generally avoid single-handedly closing question except in the cases of blatant spam or abuse (and maybe even directly delete them in those cases). However, Mithrandir24601 brings out another point of view here and in the subsequent chat.
I appreciate that moderators have been given the power to close
questions without waiting for votes (which I have issues with,
especially when the moderators were appointed, not elected, pro
tempore moderators who were chosen extremely early when there was only
a few users who knew about this SE), but can we have a policy not to
use this power when dealing with brand new users?
Let's just keep in mind that we should not judge a post (positively or negatively) based on the person who posted it. The rules for the regular users and new users should be the same as far as a minimum question standard is concerned. If you really want such a change, maybe leave out the part about "brand new users". I should mention here that when I first joined Stack Exchange around 5 years ago (from a different account), my initial questions used to be very badly written and ill-formatted. I didn't even know how to use basic MathJax at that time. If I didn't receive a push from the community in terms of closures and stern (but not rude) comments, I would probably have never improved. I can proudly say that staying on SE for all these years has improved my writing skills multi-fold. So, unlike you, I don't believe leniency towards newbie questions does anyone any good (neither the site nor the OP). The real world isn't lenient by default. One needs to earn it and it's important to learn to adapt and survive in the given conditions.
Anyhow, your last question probably deserves a more detailed answer. I'll pass this on to the others.